I know this may sound like a funny question, but were there orcs before Tolkien? In the folk tales of England, were there ever such creatures as Tolkiens orcs, or did he invent them? The mithology of my country has no such creature... we have pixies, and elves, and spirits of rivers, trees and such, but I have never found any exsistence of anything like an orc. When I was reading some old Scottish folktales, again I didn't find anything that even resembles an orc. So, does anybody know, or can even guess, where did our beloved Tolkien get his idea of orcs?