Quenya Lessons

Discussion in 'The Languages of Middle-earth' started by gate7ole, Nov 29, 2002.

  1. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    Quenya Lesson I:Nouns, Plural, Article

    The procedure I believe we should follow is the following. First I will provide the summary of the lesson. Also, I have made a few exercises and along with the given exercises of the course, they should be sufficient . I will post a few at the time and everyone will be welcome to give some answers. In order to work out, we shouldn’t rush and give all answers at once. Let many people be able to participate. Questions about the lesson as well as other remarks are welcome, too. We will try to cope with any problem that may arise, together.

    This first lesson doesn’t deal with any complex issues and also our vocabulary is very limited. So I couldn’t find many interesting exercises. As the lessons advance, I’m sure we will do better (and start the translation game).
     
  2. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    This is a summary of the first lesson. It contains the most important points of the Lesson 2 of the course we’re following. Anyone who doesn’t have the time to read the whole passage, can use this summary (but risking to ignore some minor points that I have omitted). But the most important use of this summary is for a quick reference.
    In the following passage the symbol ~ is used to give the translation when necessary.

    LESSON I: Nouns. Plural form. The article.

    Nouns:
    The nouns in Quenya come in hundreds of different forms. They can receive many endings that express various meanings (e.g the plural, words like “of, for, with”, onwership). In comparison the English language has only four forms: the single and plural form, the ownership form (‘s) and the combination of plural and ownership.
    Example:
    máryat which means “her hands”.
    Here there are two endings:
    i)-rya- that shows ownership (meaning “her”)
    ii)the final -t which denotes a pair of something.


    Plural form:
    There are 2 kinds of plural in Quenya
    a) The first is formed by adding the ending -li to the noun.
    e.g. Eldali (from Elda)
    Unfortunately the function of this plural is not fully understood. It is possible that it can be interpreted as “many” or “some” of the things in question. So, Eldali may mean “several Elves”. Lacking more information about this plural, it will not be studied further.
    b) There is a second and “normal” plural. It is also formed by adding an ending to the noun. There are two occasions:
    i) Nouns ending in any of the four vowels -a, -o, -i, or –u plus nouns ending in the group -ië, get the ending -r.
    Examples:
    Elda -> Eldar
    Vala -> Valar
    quendi -> quentir (~Elf-woman)
    Ainu -> Ainur
    Noldo -> Noldor
    Valië -> Valier (~ female Vala)
    ii) Nouns ending in any consonant or in the vowel -e, get the ending -i.
    Quendë-> Quendi
    vendë -> vendi (~ maiden)
    elen -> eleni (~ star)
    Atan -> Atani
    Casar -> Casari (~ Dwarf)

    Observation: The diairesis “¨” is only used when the letter e is final. So, if the word gets an ending, the diairesis is lost (as with Valië -> Valier).

    Every rule has some exceptions. Here exceptions occur with some nouns ending with , whose plural doesn’t follow the general rule of adding the -i.
    Examples:
    tyellë -> tyeller (~ grade)
    mallë -> maller (~ road)
    Also some nouns have been found in both plural forms:
    Ingwë ->Ingwer and Ingwi


    The article:
    Quenya has only one article, which corresponds to the definite article “the” of English. This article is the word i.
    Examples:
    i eleni (~ the stars)
    i mar (~ the earth)

    There is no need for indefinite article. The lack of an article in Quenya implies the indefinite status of the corresponding noun.
    Example:
    Elen síla lúmenn’ omentielvo (~ A star shine upon the hour of our meeting)
    Here the interpretation of the phrase uses the indefinite article “a”, while the Quenya phrase has no article at all, but simply elen (~ star)

    Articles are NOT used with proper names. E.g. Anar (~Sun) and Isil (~Moon) are considered proper nouns and don’t take an article.

    Also, words denoting an entire people do not use an article.
    Example:
    Eldar nar vanyë (~ Elves are beautiful)
    If the word Eldar takes an article then it refers to a group of the Eldar
    Example:
    I Eldar nar vanyë (~ The Elves are beautiful – referring to a particular group of elves, not all the race)


    Vocabulary:
    At the end of every lesson there will be introduced a group of 12 words that will consist the “proper” vocabulary learnt so far. Those will be the only words that are required to memorize as the lessons advance.
    minë ~ one
    Anar ~ Sun
    Isil ~ Moon
    ar ~ and
    Elda ~ Elf
    lië ~ people (an entire “ethnic group” or even race)
    vendë ~ maiden
    rocco ~ horse (specifically “swift horse for riding”)
    aran ~ king
    tári ~ queen
    tasar ~ willow
    nu ~ under
     
    Last edited: Nov 29, 2002
  3. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    1. Form the plural of the following words:
    alda, anto, cirya, harma, macil, mornië, nóme, rassë, sangwa, seler, toron

    2. Find if there is a mistake in the next phrases:
    A. i ohtari (ohtar ~ warrior)
    B. i aran ar roccor
    C. i Isil ar i Anar
    D. minë liër nu aran
    E. i malli (mallë ~ road)
    F. i eldar nu i aran (where aran is a particular king)
    G. minë tári ar i vender

    3. Which of the following words are in plural?
    Quendi, tier, casar, eleni, anar, nér, lasser


    4. Pair the words from the two lists:
    (optional exercise that uses extra words outside the vocabulary from the Lesson 2)
    i tier the star
    maller languages
    lassë the Earth
    i elen the lifebread
    i-mar the paths
    i-coimas roads
    parmar leaf
    lambi her hands
    máryat books

    5. Translate into English:
    A. Roccor
    B. Aran (two possible English translations!)
    C. I rocco.
    D. I roccor.
    E. Arani.
    F. Minë lië nu minë aran.
    G. I aran ar i tári.
    H. Vendi.

    6. Translate into Quenya:
    A. Willows.
    B. Elves.
    C. The kings.
    D. Peoples.
    E. The horse under (or, below) the willow.
    F. A maiden and a queen.
    G. The queen and the maidens.
    H. The Sun and the Moon
     
    Last edited: Nov 30, 2002
  4. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    I'll just take the first two, so every gets a turn, like Gate7ole suggested.

    Alda plural is Aldar

    Anto plural is Antor
     
  5. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    Sorry, I should have said this first: Thanks, Gate7ole, for the excellent summary and exercises!!! :) :D

    There is a game started on the original "Common Quenya Course" thread as well. I'll post on that thread that there is a new thread. I didn't see this new one at first.

    Btw, the translation of alda is "tree" and anto is "mouth".
     
  6. Húrin Thalion

    Húrin Thalion King of Crisps

    Thank you Gate7Ole for taking time t make this excellent summary and exercises. I will now follow with two of the words:

    Cirya becomes Ciryar in plura and Harma becomes Harmar.

    They mean ship and treasure.

    Elen
     
  7. Calimehtar

    Calimehtar The Lost Calaquendi

    --------------------------------
    macil - macili - 'sword'
    mornie - mornier - 'darkness'
    --------------------------------


    Thanks for the summary!

    __________________
    Cody T.
    Bilbos Bane
    CodyT8083 - AOL
     
  8. Finrod

    Finrod Registered User

    Is there a complete course of Quenya available?

    Is it a real language?
     
  9. Húrin Thalion

    Húrin Thalion King of Crisps

    Yes there is a beginners course which we are studying right now and you may join us but then you'll have to read up chapter two, not one in lesson a. Check up the thread common quenya course to see link to Ardalambion's web course. And yest it is a language, Tolkien did not create a language for his world, he created a world for his languages.

    Welcome to the forum Finrod

    Húrin Thalion
     
  10. Finrod

    Finrod Registered User

    Are there declensions or conjugations in Quenya( as in Latin)?

    What is the purpose of the plural form for a word like darkness, is it darknesses?

    (hopefully it isn't a stupid question)

    yes I know you are thinking" there are no stupid questions, just stupid people";)
     
  11. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    Nicely put, Hurin! :)

    Finrod, I PM'ed you about the course.

    Gate7ole, I have a question about #3. My question is, should we be able to tell from the endings on the words themselves whether or not they are plural without knowing the vocabulary word already? (For example, on "casar", we wouldn't know if the word already ended in "r" in the singular.) I don't think we can tell if they are plural unless we already know the vocab. word, but I wanted to make sure I hadn't missed something in the lesson. Thanks.

    Anyone up for the next two answers to Gate7ole's exercises?
     
  12. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    You're right that the 3rd exercise needs more than grammar knowledge. We can't know if an ending is because of the plural form or not. I guess experience will be needed in such occasions


    P.S. I added another exercise of mine, as well as the exercises of the course to discuss them together.
     
  13. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    Cool - even more exercises! You are a good chapter leader, Gate7ole!! :)

    Since you added some more, I'll go ahead with two more.

    #2:
    C. i Isil ar i Anar..........the mistake is that "i" is not needed before proper nouns, and Isil and Anar are proper nouns in Quenya.

    D. minë liër nu aran..........the mistake is that "liër" is plural and "minë" (one) does not agree with a plural noun. As it is written, it says "one peoples under a king", which doesn't make sense. Lië, the singular form of the noun "people" should be used instead. Also, lië plural is lier, not liër. The diaresis drops off because the "e" is no longer final.
     
  14. Húrin Thalion

    Húrin Thalion King of Crisps

    The I'll take the last three in exercise 2 then:

    E. i malli (mallë ~ road) This is entirely correct, means "the roads".


    F. i eldar nu i aran (where aran is a particular king) Correct, meaning "The elves under the king".

    G. minë tári ar i vender. This is not correct since the word Vendë becomes vendi in plural. If correct it would mean: "A queen and her maidens".

    About the third and fourth exercise: I can solve a few of them but as G7O and Elenainnie have pointed out I do not think that we should use words that are outside of our vocabulary.

    Goodbye for tonight, the clock is 23:15 here and I start early tomorrow morning. (Early for me is 9:00).

    Húrin Thalion
     
  15. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    I'm sorry but as your professor I must say that this sentence has an error and it is not correct. The noun "mallë" is irregular and its plural is maller, despite the general rule.
     
  16. Húrin Thalion

    Húrin Thalion King of Crisps

    Oh you are right. thank you, I was probably thinking of Swedish where we add R to alll vowles to get plural.

    Is there not anyone else who will continue?

    Húrin
     
  17. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    Actually, I was just trying to figure out if I had missed something in the lesson. I don't mind using a few extra vocabulary words for exercises in this lesson, since our vocab. is so limited right now. ;)
     
  18. gate7ole

    gate7ole Registered User

    One more simple "exercise". After reading this chapter, I finally understood what does our famous book means.
    So, what does "Quenta Silmarillion" mean exactly?
    Hints: the -on endings means "of" and Quenta means "tale"
     
  19. Elennainie

    Elennainie Registered User

    Would that be "Tale of the Silmarils" ?
     
  20. Lhunithiliel

    Lhunithiliel Fëanorean

    "Tale of or better about the Silmarils"

    But can someone say how the word "Silmaril" has been formed? What's its meaning?
     

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