Orcs before Tolkien
I know this may sound like a funny question, but were there orcs before Tolkien? In the folk tales of England, were there ever such creatures as Tolkiens orcs, or did he invent them? The mithology of my country has no such creature... we have pixies, and elves, and spirits of rivers, trees and such, but I have never found any exsistence of anything like an orc. When I was reading some old Scottish folktales, again I didn't find anything that even resembles an orc.
So, does anybody know, or can even guess, where did our beloved Tolkien get his idea of orcs?
The moon, the moon, so silver and cold,
Her fickle temper has oft been told,
Now shade--now bright and sunny--
But of all the lunar things that change,
The one that shows most fickle and strange,
And takes the most eccentric range,
Is the moon--so called--of honey!